Jojoba A key to sustainable development in marginal lands

Jojoba A key to sustainable development in marginal lands

Summery

Planting jojoba in marginal lands considered a sustainable approach to the environment and its resources.

Marginal lands are particularly defenseless to a range of problems associated with desertification; wide areas of the world’s dry lands can be characterized as marginal.

Jojoba {Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider} considered a crop that consume less water than other crops, hot summers resist and great salinity tolerance, which can grow in many semi-arid regions of the world, would not require the use of chemical pesticides that pollute the environment, also, offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive in this kind of environment.

Jojoba produce seeds have 40–50% of its weight as oil, for that Jojoba represents a valuable renewable energy source which can replace fossil fuels in industries and in domestic appliances, also, jojoba oil used mostly in the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics and as lubricants.

Jojoba has a potential use for rehabilitation as provision of income to the poor communities and Marginal land development. It has been used to combat and avoid desertification in the desert areas.

For all these wonderful features jojoba plants can achieve sustainable development of marginal lands.

 

Introduction:

                            Marginal land considered as a dead land which needs high cost to reclaim, unfortunately, there are wide marginal areas in MENA region for different reasons like high salinity, drought, high temperature and meal nutrition.

FAO defines marginal land as: Land having limitations which in aggregate are severe for sustained application of a given use.

People living in these areas typically suffer from poverty and are vulnerable to threats related to food security.

Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to the world, the focus should be on generating agrofuel from jojoba or Jatropha as inedible sources.

This situation can be avoided through integrated strategies and interventions, taking into account the natural properties of marginal land environments and the capacities of dryland communities

Sustainable development is required to reduce poverty in these lands, in order to enable marginal land dwellers to maximize their resource management capacities.

Sustainable land management: means the management of land as a resource and factor of production, addressing both its economic and ecological importance. It seeks to establish forms of land use which ensure that the soil, water and vegetation continue to sufficiently support production systems based on use of the land, for present and future generations.

Small farmland and food security make agrofuel derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to the world, the focus should be on generating biodiesel from jojoba or Jatropha as inedible sources. Marginal lands may play an important role in agrofuel production

  • Challenges in Marginal Dry lands :

Drylands are remarkable ecosystems, but limited water availability and its variability impact the capability to grow crops, advance livestock and produce consumer goods.

Dry lands occur on all continents; they represent more than 40% of the global land area and are home to almost a third of the global population, 90% of who live in developing countries (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005).

Marginal dry lands are mainly exposed to a variety of problems associated with desertification, and becomes a constraint when human activities stress dry land ecosystems exterior their loud size limits, resulting in irreversible degradation of land.

This situation can be avoided through integrated strategies and interferences, taking into description the natural properties of dry land environments and the abilities of dry land communities.

In different regions, increases in salinization of soil and water resources have resulted from the continual application of irrigation water, over-extraction of groundwater and incorrect drainage (Safriel et al., 2005).

It is now commonly accepted that single-factor and sector oriented solutions to combating desertification do not work, and can even be counterproductive. Contemporary integrated management schemes take into account the marginal biophysical character of dry lands and their constraints, as well as the wide-spread poverty syndrome of dry land communities.

In order to enable dry land occupants to maximize their resource management capacities, sustainable living options and political permission are required.

  • Jojoba Dreams:

One crop that is regularly cited as ideal for growing on marginal land in developing countries, is the oilseed bush Jojoba, there are plans to grow this crop in different regions like Africa, Asia and South America.

Jojoba offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive (Yermanos 1979).

“Jojoba supposed to be future arid plant”.

  • Why Jojoba?

Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider or simply Jojoba belongs to the family Simmondsiaceae, is evergreen, perennial woody shrub that produce small seeds, which contains waxy liquid very similar to spermaceti.

Jojoba represents a valuable renewable energy source which can replace fossil fuels in industries and in household appliances.

This desert shrub is inherently suited to marginal lands of semi-arid environments,  jojoba can tolerate salinity and other hazards of arid lands, it’s grows well in light textured soils, drought conditions and  saline water up to 6000 ppm ( Abobatta et al., 2015), requires little water and maintenance, is free from disease.

Jojoba is the only source of liquid wax esters, among the numerous identified plant species in the world, these special esters have unique properties compared to all other natural oils, which are composed of triglycerides.

Jojoba shrubs typically grows to (2 – 4 m) height, with a broad, dense crown, the leaves are opposite, oval in shape, 2–3.5 cm long and 1 –1.7 cm broad, thick, waxy, and gray-green in color, carry a header on the branches, which decreases exposure to sunlight.

           Jojoba has a deep rooting habit, and strong root system may reach a length of more than ten times the vegetative growth height, jojoba produces nuts with 40-50% of its weight as oil.

 Jojoba can commercially be grown in most marginal land in semi-arid developing countries, which have an edge due to the low cost of production of Jojoba.

Jojoba gaining worldwide attention, as a possible plant species for oil production, jojoba oil is unique due to its unusual properties that differ from other oil seeds, the complete absence of glycerin makes it liquid wax and not fat.

For that, jojoba oil and its derivatives find requests and are used in fields of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and lubricants as a replacement of sperm whale oil, the waste products from jojoba oil processing were used to improve soil, as a dry material, the pulp can absorb water up to 10 times its volume.

In recent years, jojoba is becoming gradually known as an industrial crop in different countries, it’s produced in the USA, Latin America, MENA region and many other countries of the world.

The total area covered by this crop throughout the world is around 20,500 hectares.

Jojoba advantage:

  1. Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development, hot summers resist, desert soil, minimal water, and great salinity tolerance, lesser possibilities for infection, minimum fertilizers requirements,
  2. Jojoba has a potential use for rehabilitation as provision of income to the poor communities and Marginal land development.
  3. Jojoba has been used to combat and prevent desertification in the desert areas.
  4. Generous financial income, are certainly most encouraging to plant jojoba in marginal land.
  5. Long life span, over 100 years in some cases.
  6. No annual re-planting required as only the seeds are harvested.

 

All these features are embodied in one wonderful plant: Jojoba

 One of the several renewable biofuel sources, and yet not widely known, jojoba plant, appears to be promising with scope for cultivation in the relatively hot weather. As such, the key to the future of biodiesel is finding inexpensive feed stocks that can be grown by farmers on marginal agricultural land, and jojoba  is one of many plants that hold a great deal of promise.

  • Agrofuels:

Partly in order to respond to accusations that agrofuels compete with food production, some policy makers have proposed that agrofuel crops should be planted on land that is considered marginal or idle.

There are millions of hectares of such land all over the world, especially in MENA region, which are of no importance for biodiversity or carbon sequestration, and which play no role in food production.

Planting “marginal lands” with agrofuels could be extremely positive, providing income for local communities and replacement fossil fuels in the market.

According to the UK’s Gallagher Review maintains that indirect negative impacts from agrofuels can be avoided by growing them on marginal land.  “Biofuel production must target marginal and idle land and use of wastes and residues.”

Visibly, produce agrofuel from non-edible oils like jojoba and jatropha oils are very economical comparable to edible oils mainly in developing countries.

 

DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS FROM AGROFUELS?

Sustainable bioenergy has become an important goal for many countries. The use of marginal lands to produce energy crops is one strategy for achieving this goal.

The last decades have seen the emergence and growth of the biofuel sector and its growth into a global industry. Different countries, low- middle-income and rich, have realized ambitious goals and policies to promote significant agrofuel industries.

In industrialized countries, the main driver of agrofuel growth has been the concern to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In contrast, developing countries have seen biofuels as a way of feat a number of goals including better energy security, promotion of exports and rural development.

CONCLUSION

 

            Sustainable development is a key factor in the successful enhancement of marginal lands.

For that, Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development.

Obviously, produce agrofuel from non-edible oils like jojoba and jatropha oils are very economical comparable to edible oils mainly in developing countries.

It is claimed that growing jojoba on marginal lands will bring development benefits to different countries,

  

References

  1. Abobatta, F. R., El Ghadban, E. A. E. and Mahmud, G. F. (2015) Chemical studies on grown jojoba oils under Egyptian conditions, Glob. J. Agric. Food Safety Sci., Vol.2 (3): pp. 270 – 283.
  2. 1994. Science for the People-Technology for Progress. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Science and Technology. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Regional Office, Bahawalpur. 3
  3. Butt, M. A., M. Akram and M. Abdullah. 1991. Jojoba an economic oilseed plant for desert with special reference to Cholistan. Proc. National Seminar. The People’s Participation in the Management of Resources in Arid Lands. Nov. 11-13, 1990. Bahawalpur, Pakistan. p. 72-78.
  4. Benzioni, A., A. Nerd and D. Mills. 1990. Salinity in growth and development of clones. Jojoba Happenings 18 (5): 2.
  5. El-Sayed, M. S. M., 2012. Applied approach for the use of jojoba oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. M.Sc. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.
  6. Kubitzki, K. and C. Bayer, Flowering plants, Dicotyledons : Malvales, Capparales, and non- betalain Caryophyllales. The Families and genera of vascular plants. 2003, Berlin ; New York: Springer.
  7. Scherr, Sara. J. and Hazell, P. B. R. 1994. Sustainable agricultural development strategies in fragile lands. International Food Policy Research Institute 1200 Seventeenth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036-3006 U.S.A.
  8. Thomson, P. H. 1982. Jojoba Handbook (3rd Ed.). Bonsall Publications, 4339 Holly    Lane Bonsall, California (USA).
  9. Van Wyk, B.-E. and M. Wink, Medicinal plants of the world : an illustrated scientific guide to important medicinal plants and their uses. 1st ed. 2004, Portland, Or. : Timber Press.
  10. Waleed Abobatta, (2016) Simmondsia chinensisشجرة الذهب الاخضر-الجوجوبا- Noor Publishing – Germany.

https://www.morebooks.de/fr/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=978-3-330-79952-3

  1. Ya, Tang, Jia-Sui Xie, and Shu Geng 2010. Marginal Land-based Biomass Energy Production in China
  2. Yermanos, D.M. 1979. Jojoba: a crop whose time has come. California Agriculture. p. 4-11

 

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