wabobatta

Buddha Hands Fruit

Buddha Hands Fruit

Citrus medica var. sarcodactylus

This lemon like citron (Citrus medica var. sarcodactylus) is not usually eaten fresh, (although the rind may be candied and is sometimes used for zest), but it’s fragrant and said to have some medical qualities. It is said that the fragrance of a single fruit can perfume a room for weeks.

The Origin:

                                    The origin of this kind of citron is commonly traced back to the Far East, probably northeastern  India  or China, where most domesticated citrus fruits originate.

Description:

                   Buddha’s Hands { Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis } one of citrus kinds, like any other citrus variety, it is a  small tree or shrub  with long, irregular branches covered in thorns, the leaves are large grow up to 15 cm, oblong pale, green, Its white flowers grow in fragrant clusters and tinted purplish from the outside, the fruit contain only the white part of the fruit and sometimes a small amount of acidic pulp, but many varieties  are completely juice-less and some are seedless.

The fruit is segmented into finger-like sections, resembling a human hand, but the different cultivars and variations of this citron variety form a gradient from “open-hand” types with outward-splayed segments to “closed-hand” types, in which the fingers are kept together, also, there are half-fingered fruits, in which the basal side is united and the apical side fingered.

Propagation:

                            Trees can be grown from cuttings taken from branches two to four years old, it is very commonly grafted onto sufficient rootstock.

Climate:

               As most kind of citrus, the plant is sensitive to frost, as well as intense heat and drought, It grows best in a temperate climate.

Traditionally, the fruit was prized by the Chinese for its resemblance to a hand with the fingers outstretched. The buddha’s-hand citron was a popular plant motif in the art of the Ming dynasty. Besides its association with the Buddha the plant suggested wealth because of its resemblance to an outstretched hand. It remains popular at New Year’s and is said to bestow good fortune.

Dr. Waleed Abobatta

2017-01-18

Reuse waste water and Green cities development

Reuse waste water and Green cities development

Introduction:

                                    In nature, water (as energy) is neither formed nor destroyed but is converted from one form to another .

  • Only about 1% of global water occurs as liquid freshwater. More than 98% of the freshwater occurs as groundwater, while less than 2% is available in streams and lakes, so the liquid freshwater is a finite and limited resource.
  • The increasing scarcity of water in the world along with rapid population increase in urban areas gives rise to concern about appropriate water management practices.

With increasing population and economic growth, treatment and safe disposal of wastewater is essential to preserve public health and reduce intolerable levels of environmental degradation. In addition, adequate wastewater management is also required for preventing contamination of water bodies for the purpose of preserving the sources of clean water. 
Water scarcity and water pollution are crucial issues in today’s world. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity and pollution is wastewater reuse.

Why Reuse of Wastewater is required?

—To reduce the ever increasing gap of Potable Water Supply and Demand in Urban Cities.

—To bring down billing charges of fresh water resulted due to long distance transportation, gradient and high energy costs.

—To mitigate conflicts of water resource allocation between the Domestic and Agricultural /Industry.

—To reduce groundwater extraction and Increase conservation of water resources.

  • Make water and sanitation sector sustainable .

—Using reclaimed water in place of fresh water for existing uses can free up existing water supply system capacity to cater for new water needs.

—This results in savings in the cost of developing new water sources, water transfers, treatment and distribution systems .

—It can also result in significant improvements in downstream river water quality.

Environmental benefits of water reuse

—Water reuse to meet the world’s water needs.

“Water recycling is a critical element for managing our water resources .

—Through water conservation and recycling, we can meet environmental needs and still have sustainable development and a viable economy .

water recycling as “the brightest star” in meeting future water needs in the world.

 

A valuable plant production from Marginal Lands

A VALUABLE PLANT PRODUCTION FROM MARGINAL LANDS

Summery

Marginal land considered as a died land which need high cost to reclaim regarding many reasons like hard climate.
Unfortunately, there are wide marginal areas in MENA region for different reasons like high salinity, drought, high temperature and meal nutrition.

However, there are certain high-value types of plants that fit it this environment, and Jojoba seedling is on the top of these plants.
Jojoba Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider is a precious, drought resistant shrub that is adapted to the marginal land and dry area, and offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive, very few other species can survive this kind of environment.

For that, Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development, Hot summers resist, desert soil, minimal water, and great salinity tolerance. Lesser possibilities for infection, minimum fertilizers
requirements, and generous financial income, are certainly most encouraging to plant Jojoba in marginal land.

 

 نباتات مربحة من الأراضى الهامشية

 الجوجوبا

 تعد الأراضى الهامشية أحد انواع الأراضى المهملة والتى يتطلب استصلاحها وتحويلها لأراضى منتجة مجهودات عالية التكاليف, مما دفع لاهمالها لفترات طويلة.

وللاسف هناك الكثير من المساحات التى تدخل ضمن الأراضى الهامشية فى منطقتنا العربية والافريقية والتى كانت تمثل عائقا كبيرا امام عملية التنمية فى هذه المناطق, سواءا لملوحة هذه الأراضى أو فقرها الشديد فى العناصر الغذائية أو ظروفها المناخية القاسية من جفاف وحرارة عالية مما مثل عوائق صعبة لزراعتها وتنميتها وتحويلها لمناطق مأهولة بالسكان.

وفى الأونة الاخيرة انتبه العالم لمدى أهمية الجوجوبا وقدرتها على النمو فى العديد من انواع الأراضى وقدرتها على النجاح فى الأراضى الهامشية وتحويلها لأراضى منتجة بأقل التكاليف الممكنة.

حيث تتحمل الجوجوبا الظروف المناخية الصعبة مثل الملوحة حتى 8 ألاف جزء في المليون, ودرجات الحرارة العالية, وظروف الجفاف وقلة المياه, كما يمكنها النمو بالأراضى الفقيرة فى العناصر الغذائية  أى يمكنها النمو فى ظروف  صعبة سواءا مناخية أو من حيث نوعية وجودة التربة, والتى لا تنمو فيها معظم الأنواع النباتية الأخرى.

وبالتالى فان الجوجوبا تعد النبات المثالى لتنمية ” الاراضى الهامشية ” وتحقيق عائد اقتصادى مجزى منها, ولذلك تستخدم الجوجوبا فى تثبيت الكثبان الرملية, وكذلك لمكافحة التصحركاحزمة خضراء حول المدن والتجمعات الجديدة.

 و شجرة الجوجوبا يتراوح ارتفاعها من (2- 4 متر تقريبا), ولها عدة سيقان رئيسية ومجموع خضرى كثيف,  و وأوراق الجوجوبا صغيرة الحجم (من 2- 3سم طول, و1 – 1.7 سم عرض) وهى جلدية سميكة رمادية اللون, وتحمل متقابلة على الأفرع, و متجهه للأعلى مما يقلل فقدها للماء نتيجة لعدم تعرضها بصورة مباشرة للشمس, وللجوجوبا مجموع جذرى قوى يتعمق لمسافات كبيرة قد تصل الى عشرة اضعاف ارتفاع النمو الخضرى., مما يمكنها من تحمل ظروف الجفاف العالية والظروف البيئية الصعبة.

وترجع الأهمية الاقتصادية للجوجوبا لاحتواء بذورها على 40 الى 50% من وزنها شمع سائل يطلق عليه مجازا زيت الجوجوبا, والذى يعد اكثر الزيوت النباتية شبها بزيت كبد الحوت, و الجوجوبا من المحاصيل متعددة الاستخدام, حيث يستخدم زيتها فى العديد من الصناعات سواء مستحضرات التجميل, او انتاج مواد طبية, ونظرا لارتفاع درجة انصهاره والتى تصل الى (410 درجة مئوية)فيعد من أجود زيوت التشحيم, ويعد الاستخدام الأهم حاليا هو انتاج وقود حيوى من زيوت الجوجوبا.

لذا فان الجوجوبا تعد النبات المناسب لتنمية الاراضى الهامشية.

Jojoba A key to sustainable development in marginal lands

Jojoba A key to sustainable development in marginal lands

Summery

Planting jojoba in marginal lands considered a sustainable approach to the environment and its resources.

Marginal lands are particularly defenseless to a range of problems associated with desertification; wide areas of the world’s dry lands can be characterized as marginal.

Jojoba {Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider} considered a crop that consume less water than other crops, hot summers resist and great salinity tolerance, which can grow in many semi-arid regions of the world, would not require the use of chemical pesticides that pollute the environment, also, offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive in this kind of environment.

Jojoba produce seeds have 40–50% of its weight as oil, for that Jojoba represents a valuable renewable energy source which can replace fossil fuels in industries and in domestic appliances, also, jojoba oil used mostly in the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics and as lubricants.

Jojoba has a potential use for rehabilitation as provision of income to the poor communities and Marginal land development. It has been used to combat and avoid desertification in the desert areas.

For all these wonderful features jojoba plants can achieve sustainable development of marginal lands.

 

Introduction:

                            Marginal land considered as a dead land which needs high cost to reclaim, unfortunately, there are wide marginal areas in MENA region for different reasons like high salinity, drought, high temperature and meal nutrition.

FAO defines marginal land as: Land having limitations which in aggregate are severe for sustained application of a given use.

People living in these areas typically suffer from poverty and are vulnerable to threats related to food security.

Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to the world, the focus should be on generating agrofuel from jojoba or Jatropha as inedible sources.

This situation can be avoided through integrated strategies and interventions, taking into account the natural properties of marginal land environments and the capacities of dryland communities

Sustainable development is required to reduce poverty in these lands, in order to enable marginal land dwellers to maximize their resource management capacities.

Sustainable land management: means the management of land as a resource and factor of production, addressing both its economic and ecological importance. It seeks to establish forms of land use which ensure that the soil, water and vegetation continue to sufficiently support production systems based on use of the land, for present and future generations.

Small farmland and food security make agrofuel derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to the world, the focus should be on generating biodiesel from jojoba or Jatropha as inedible sources. Marginal lands may play an important role in agrofuel production

  • Challenges in Marginal Dry lands :

Drylands are remarkable ecosystems, but limited water availability and its variability impact the capability to grow crops, advance livestock and produce consumer goods.

Dry lands occur on all continents; they represent more than 40% of the global land area and are home to almost a third of the global population, 90% of who live in developing countries (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005).

Marginal dry lands are mainly exposed to a variety of problems associated with desertification, and becomes a constraint when human activities stress dry land ecosystems exterior their loud size limits, resulting in irreversible degradation of land.

This situation can be avoided through integrated strategies and interferences, taking into description the natural properties of dry land environments and the abilities of dry land communities.

In different regions, increases in salinization of soil and water resources have resulted from the continual application of irrigation water, over-extraction of groundwater and incorrect drainage (Safriel et al., 2005).

It is now commonly accepted that single-factor and sector oriented solutions to combating desertification do not work, and can even be counterproductive. Contemporary integrated management schemes take into account the marginal biophysical character of dry lands and their constraints, as well as the wide-spread poverty syndrome of dry land communities.

In order to enable dry land occupants to maximize their resource management capacities, sustainable living options and political permission are required.

  • Jojoba Dreams:

One crop that is regularly cited as ideal for growing on marginal land in developing countries, is the oilseed bush Jojoba, there are plans to grow this crop in different regions like Africa, Asia and South America.

Jojoba offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive (Yermanos 1979).

“Jojoba supposed to be future arid plant”.

  • Why Jojoba?

Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider or simply Jojoba belongs to the family Simmondsiaceae, is evergreen, perennial woody shrub that produce small seeds, which contains waxy liquid very similar to spermaceti.

Jojoba represents a valuable renewable energy source which can replace fossil fuels in industries and in household appliances.

This desert shrub is inherently suited to marginal lands of semi-arid environments,  jojoba can tolerate salinity and other hazards of arid lands, it’s grows well in light textured soils, drought conditions and  saline water up to 6000 ppm ( Abobatta et al., 2015), requires little water and maintenance, is free from disease.

Jojoba is the only source of liquid wax esters, among the numerous identified plant species in the world, these special esters have unique properties compared to all other natural oils, which are composed of triglycerides.

Jojoba shrubs typically grows to (2 – 4 m) height, with a broad, dense crown, the leaves are opposite, oval in shape, 2–3.5 cm long and 1 –1.7 cm broad, thick, waxy, and gray-green in color, carry a header on the branches, which decreases exposure to sunlight.

           Jojoba has a deep rooting habit, and strong root system may reach a length of more than ten times the vegetative growth height, jojoba produces nuts with 40-50% of its weight as oil.

 Jojoba can commercially be grown in most marginal land in semi-arid developing countries, which have an edge due to the low cost of production of Jojoba.

Jojoba gaining worldwide attention, as a possible plant species for oil production, jojoba oil is unique due to its unusual properties that differ from other oil seeds, the complete absence of glycerin makes it liquid wax and not fat.

For that, jojoba oil and its derivatives find requests and are used in fields of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and lubricants as a replacement of sperm whale oil, the waste products from jojoba oil processing were used to improve soil, as a dry material, the pulp can absorb water up to 10 times its volume.

In recent years, jojoba is becoming gradually known as an industrial crop in different countries, it’s produced in the USA, Latin America, MENA region and many other countries of the world.

The total area covered by this crop throughout the world is around 20,500 hectares.

Jojoba advantage:

  1. Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development, hot summers resist, desert soil, minimal water, and great salinity tolerance, lesser possibilities for infection, minimum fertilizers requirements,
  2. Jojoba has a potential use for rehabilitation as provision of income to the poor communities and Marginal land development.
  3. Jojoba has been used to combat and prevent desertification in the desert areas.
  4. Generous financial income, are certainly most encouraging to plant jojoba in marginal land.
  5. Long life span, over 100 years in some cases.
  6. No annual re-planting required as only the seeds are harvested.

 

All these features are embodied in one wonderful plant: Jojoba

 One of the several renewable biofuel sources, and yet not widely known, jojoba plant, appears to be promising with scope for cultivation in the relatively hot weather. As such, the key to the future of biodiesel is finding inexpensive feed stocks that can be grown by farmers on marginal agricultural land, and jojoba  is one of many plants that hold a great deal of promise.

  • Agrofuels:

Partly in order to respond to accusations that agrofuels compete with food production, some policy makers have proposed that agrofuel crops should be planted on land that is considered marginal or idle.

There are millions of hectares of such land all over the world, especially in MENA region, which are of no importance for biodiversity or carbon sequestration, and which play no role in food production.

Planting “marginal lands” with agrofuels could be extremely positive, providing income for local communities and replacement fossil fuels in the market.

According to the UK’s Gallagher Review maintains that indirect negative impacts from agrofuels can be avoided by growing them on marginal land.  “Biofuel production must target marginal and idle land and use of wastes and residues.”

Visibly, produce agrofuel from non-edible oils like jojoba and jatropha oils are very economical comparable to edible oils mainly in developing countries.

 

DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS FROM AGROFUELS?

Sustainable bioenergy has become an important goal for many countries. The use of marginal lands to produce energy crops is one strategy for achieving this goal.

The last decades have seen the emergence and growth of the biofuel sector and its growth into a global industry. Different countries, low- middle-income and rich, have realized ambitious goals and policies to promote significant agrofuel industries.

In industrialized countries, the main driver of agrofuel growth has been the concern to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In contrast, developing countries have seen biofuels as a way of feat a number of goals including better energy security, promotion of exports and rural development.

CONCLUSION

 

            Sustainable development is a key factor in the successful enhancement of marginal lands.

For that, Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development.

Obviously, produce agrofuel from non-edible oils like jojoba and jatropha oils are very economical comparable to edible oils mainly in developing countries.

It is claimed that growing jojoba on marginal lands will bring development benefits to different countries,

  

References

  1. Abobatta, F. R., El Ghadban, E. A. E. and Mahmud, G. F. (2015) Chemical studies on grown jojoba oils under Egyptian conditions, Glob. J. Agric. Food Safety Sci., Vol.2 (3): pp. 270 – 283.
  2. 1994. Science for the People-Technology for Progress. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Science and Technology. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Regional Office, Bahawalpur. 3
  3. Butt, M. A., M. Akram and M. Abdullah. 1991. Jojoba an economic oilseed plant for desert with special reference to Cholistan. Proc. National Seminar. The People’s Participation in the Management of Resources in Arid Lands. Nov. 11-13, 1990. Bahawalpur, Pakistan. p. 72-78.
  4. Benzioni, A., A. Nerd and D. Mills. 1990. Salinity in growth and development of clones. Jojoba Happenings 18 (5): 2.
  5. El-Sayed, M. S. M., 2012. Applied approach for the use of jojoba oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. M.Sc. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.
  6. Kubitzki, K. and C. Bayer, Flowering plants, Dicotyledons : Malvales, Capparales, and non- betalain Caryophyllales. The Families and genera of vascular plants. 2003, Berlin ; New York: Springer.
  7. Scherr, Sara. J. and Hazell, P. B. R. 1994. Sustainable agricultural development strategies in fragile lands. International Food Policy Research Institute 1200 Seventeenth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036-3006 U.S.A.
  8. Thomson, P. H. 1982. Jojoba Handbook (3rd Ed.). Bonsall Publications, 4339 Holly    Lane Bonsall, California (USA).
  9. Van Wyk, B.-E. and M. Wink, Medicinal plants of the world : an illustrated scientific guide to important medicinal plants and their uses. 1st ed. 2004, Portland, Or. : Timber Press.
  10. Waleed Abobatta, (2016) Simmondsia chinensisشجرة الذهب الاخضر-الجوجوبا- Noor Publishing – Germany.

https://www.morebooks.de/fr/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=978-3-330-79952-3

  1. Ya, Tang, Jia-Sui Xie, and Shu Geng 2010. Marginal Land-based Biomass Energy Production in China
  2. Yermanos, D.M. 1979. Jojoba: a crop whose time has come. California Agriculture. p. 4-11

 

Bio Fuel Trees

Bio Fuel Trees

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https://www.academia.edu/30098507/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85_%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B7%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%A1_%D8%A5%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%85_%D9%85%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%82%D9%8A_Bio_Fuel_Trees

In the last decades there are more attention of the seriousness of pollution of excessive use of fossil fuels, which causes a lot of environmental hazards , now there are direction to production of new types of  bio fuel less harmful to the environment.

Produce bio fuel from agricultural oils as a fuel in diesel engines has been proposed as an alternative to diesel from fossil resources. Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops, like jojoba and Jatropha trees.

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 jojoba oil appears to be promising scope for cultivation in arid and semi-arid areas, The chemical structure of jojoba oil allows its use as a constituent in many lubricating oil formulation.

 

Role of Nanotechnology in Horticulture production enhancement

Nanotechnology is a newly initial field in recent decades on a commercial scale, in the same time increasing pollution rates in various agricultural products is a serious problem need quickly solving to increase exporting our agriculture products,
Nano materials promise many stimulating changes to enhance different crop production and fruit quality.

We must manage to increase production efficiency of different horticulture crops, increased soil vitality and decreased costs as possible and decreasing the pollution, with using novel sciences such as nanotechnology in products, could be counted as the best solution to this problem.

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Also, Nano materials is using as antifungal in many fruits, vegetables and flowers to improvement shelf life, as Nano Silver Particles which have been used as antifungal to increased vase life of different kinds of flowers.
Also, zincoxide nanoparticles using microbial approach, postharvest of banana, carrot, tomato, onion and etc.

397860-plant

Several papers funding that nano-packing material had quite beneficial effects on physicochemical and physiological quality of products compared with normal packing material.
Therefore, the nano-materials may provide an attractive alternative to improve the preservation qualities of fruits, vegetables and other valuable horticultural crops which reduced costs of different horticultural products.

https://www.academia.edu/30098375/Nano_Technology.pdf

This lecture highlights some recent benefits of the use of nanotechnology for horticultural crops production.

 

Jojoba Book _ Simmondsia chinensis

Jojoba Trees

Simmondsia chinensis

 

978-3-330-79952-3-full

 

New Jojoba Books:

Jojoba belongs to family Simmondsiaceae is a woody, evergreen, perennial shrub native to Southern Arizona, Sonora and Baja California. The seeds produce a liquid wax, which is very similar to spermaceti and has wide applications in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.

In addition, different extracts from jojoba plant are widely used in many folk medicinal uses.

this book about planting and production of jojoba trees in different areas in arid Lands, trees resistance for salinity up to 6000 ppm and drought conditions,

https://www.morebooks.de/fr/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=978-3-330-79952-3