Lecture

Reuse waste water and Green cities development

Reuse waste water and Green cities development

Introduction:

                                    In nature, water (as energy) is neither formed nor destroyed but is converted from one form to another .

  • Only about 1% of global water occurs as liquid freshwater. More than 98% of the freshwater occurs as groundwater, while less than 2% is available in streams and lakes, so the liquid freshwater is a finite and limited resource.
  • The increasing scarcity of water in the world along with rapid population increase in urban areas gives rise to concern about appropriate water management practices.

With increasing population and economic growth, treatment and safe disposal of wastewater is essential to preserve public health and reduce intolerable levels of environmental degradation. In addition, adequate wastewater management is also required for preventing contamination of water bodies for the purpose of preserving the sources of clean water. 
Water scarcity and water pollution are crucial issues in today’s world. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity and pollution is wastewater reuse.

Why Reuse of Wastewater is required?

—To reduce the ever increasing gap of Potable Water Supply and Demand in Urban Cities.

—To bring down billing charges of fresh water resulted due to long distance transportation, gradient and high energy costs.

—To mitigate conflicts of water resource allocation between the Domestic and Agricultural /Industry.

—To reduce groundwater extraction and Increase conservation of water resources.

  • Make water and sanitation sector sustainable .

—Using reclaimed water in place of fresh water for existing uses can free up existing water supply system capacity to cater for new water needs.

—This results in savings in the cost of developing new water sources, water transfers, treatment and distribution systems .

—It can also result in significant improvements in downstream river water quality.

Environmental benefits of water reuse

—Water reuse to meet the world’s water needs.

“Water recycling is a critical element for managing our water resources .

—Through water conservation and recycling, we can meet environmental needs and still have sustainable development and a viable economy .

water recycling as “the brightest star” in meeting future water needs in the world.

 

A valuable plant production from Marginal Lands

A VALUABLE PLANT PRODUCTION FROM MARGINAL LANDS

Summery

Marginal land considered as a died land which need high cost to reclaim regarding many reasons like hard climate.
Unfortunately, there are wide marginal areas in MENA region for different reasons like high salinity, drought, high temperature and meal nutrition.

However, there are certain high-value types of plants that fit it this environment, and Jojoba seedling is on the top of these plants.
Jojoba Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider is a precious, drought resistant shrub that is adapted to the marginal land and dry area, and offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive, very few other species can survive this kind of environment.

For that, Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development, Hot summers resist, desert soil, minimal water, and great salinity tolerance. Lesser possibilities for infection, minimum fertilizers
requirements, and generous financial income, are certainly most encouraging to plant Jojoba in marginal land.

 

 نباتات مربحة من الأراضى الهامشية

 الجوجوبا

 تعد الأراضى الهامشية أحد انواع الأراضى المهملة والتى يتطلب استصلاحها وتحويلها لأراضى منتجة مجهودات عالية التكاليف, مما دفع لاهمالها لفترات طويلة.

وللاسف هناك الكثير من المساحات التى تدخل ضمن الأراضى الهامشية فى منطقتنا العربية والافريقية والتى كانت تمثل عائقا كبيرا امام عملية التنمية فى هذه المناطق, سواءا لملوحة هذه الأراضى أو فقرها الشديد فى العناصر الغذائية أو ظروفها المناخية القاسية من جفاف وحرارة عالية مما مثل عوائق صعبة لزراعتها وتنميتها وتحويلها لمناطق مأهولة بالسكان.

وفى الأونة الاخيرة انتبه العالم لمدى أهمية الجوجوبا وقدرتها على النمو فى العديد من انواع الأراضى وقدرتها على النجاح فى الأراضى الهامشية وتحويلها لأراضى منتجة بأقل التكاليف الممكنة.

حيث تتحمل الجوجوبا الظروف المناخية الصعبة مثل الملوحة حتى 8 ألاف جزء في المليون, ودرجات الحرارة العالية, وظروف الجفاف وقلة المياه, كما يمكنها النمو بالأراضى الفقيرة فى العناصر الغذائية  أى يمكنها النمو فى ظروف  صعبة سواءا مناخية أو من حيث نوعية وجودة التربة, والتى لا تنمو فيها معظم الأنواع النباتية الأخرى.

وبالتالى فان الجوجوبا تعد النبات المثالى لتنمية ” الاراضى الهامشية ” وتحقيق عائد اقتصادى مجزى منها, ولذلك تستخدم الجوجوبا فى تثبيت الكثبان الرملية, وكذلك لمكافحة التصحركاحزمة خضراء حول المدن والتجمعات الجديدة.

 و شجرة الجوجوبا يتراوح ارتفاعها من (2- 4 متر تقريبا), ولها عدة سيقان رئيسية ومجموع خضرى كثيف,  و وأوراق الجوجوبا صغيرة الحجم (من 2- 3سم طول, و1 – 1.7 سم عرض) وهى جلدية سميكة رمادية اللون, وتحمل متقابلة على الأفرع, و متجهه للأعلى مما يقلل فقدها للماء نتيجة لعدم تعرضها بصورة مباشرة للشمس, وللجوجوبا مجموع جذرى قوى يتعمق لمسافات كبيرة قد تصل الى عشرة اضعاف ارتفاع النمو الخضرى., مما يمكنها من تحمل ظروف الجفاف العالية والظروف البيئية الصعبة.

وترجع الأهمية الاقتصادية للجوجوبا لاحتواء بذورها على 40 الى 50% من وزنها شمع سائل يطلق عليه مجازا زيت الجوجوبا, والذى يعد اكثر الزيوت النباتية شبها بزيت كبد الحوت, و الجوجوبا من المحاصيل متعددة الاستخدام, حيث يستخدم زيتها فى العديد من الصناعات سواء مستحضرات التجميل, او انتاج مواد طبية, ونظرا لارتفاع درجة انصهاره والتى تصل الى (410 درجة مئوية)فيعد من أجود زيوت التشحيم, ويعد الاستخدام الأهم حاليا هو انتاج وقود حيوى من زيوت الجوجوبا.

لذا فان الجوجوبا تعد النبات المناسب لتنمية الاراضى الهامشية.

Bio Fuel Trees

Bio Fuel Trees

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https://www.academia.edu/30098507/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85_%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B7%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%A1_%D8%A5%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%85_%D9%85%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%82%D9%8A_Bio_Fuel_Trees

In the last decades there are more attention of the seriousness of pollution of excessive use of fossil fuels, which causes a lot of environmental hazards , now there are direction to production of new types of  bio fuel less harmful to the environment.

Produce bio fuel from agricultural oils as a fuel in diesel engines has been proposed as an alternative to diesel from fossil resources. Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops, like jojoba and Jatropha trees.

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 jojoba oil appears to be promising scope for cultivation in arid and semi-arid areas, The chemical structure of jojoba oil allows its use as a constituent in many lubricating oil formulation.

 

Green gold “Jojoba” shining in Egyptian desert

Jojoba plants (Simmondsia chinensis) belongs to family Simmondsiaceae which is mostly a woody, evergreen, perennial shrub that produce small seeds, which contains waxy liquid very similar to spermaceti.

Jojoba plants native to the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, Northern Mexico and arid California.

The gender of jojoba plants can only be discerned from their flowers. When planted from seeds, jojoba plants can take up to three years to produce flowers. The female plants produce seed from flowers the male plants pollinate.

For that we use rooted cuttings to produce female trees to improve the ratio of female to male plants (normally 50:50 in seeded fields), eliminating the expense of removing male plants.

The use of cuttings also improved the growth rate of the female plants, which no longer needed to compete with faster growing male plants for nutrients and water.Jojoba Lecture