Dr Waleed Abobatta

Endangered Plants

All over the world, we always known about the endangered animals, but what are the most endangered plants?

They might not be as stirring or attractive as animals, but they are just as important to the ecosystem and humanity depends on that ecosystem.

In this articles we’ll talking about the most threatened plants today. Almost all this kinds are classed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

These plants inhabit some of the most unreachable, distant parts of our planet. They are threatened by habitat destruction, illegal collection, poaching, and competition with invading species.

Some of this plants:

  1. Attenborough’s pitcher plant (Nepenthes attenboroughii)
  2.    Western Prairie Fringed Orchid ( Platanthera praeclara )
  3. Rafflesia Flower (Rafflesia arnoldii )
  4.  Georgia Aster (Symphyotrichum georgianum )
  5. Wiggin’s Acalypha (Acalypha wigginsii )
  6. Texas Wild Rice (Zizania texana )
  7. Howell’s Spectacular Thelypody (Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis )
  8. Ouachita Mountain Goldenrod (Solidago ouachitensis )
  9. Enrubio (Solanum drymophilum )
  10. (Agave arizonica )
  11. Stenogyne Kanehoana .

In the next article w’ll taking about each kind of this plants.

Dr. Waleed Abobatta


Magnetic Technology and Agricultural Sector

Among the stresses in agricultural sector worldwide, the increase of soil and water salinity is considered the major stress. This is particularly emerging in developing countries like MENA region. The chronic water shortage in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is a perplexing issue, undoubtedly because various operational sectors. The use of magnetically treated water is an important factor in achieving sustainable development in the agricultural sector. It improves plant production, reduces fertilizer use, and increase water irrigation efficiency, Also, use of magnetically treated irrigation water reduced soil pH but increased soil E C and available P in different plants. From other side, there are some beneficial effect of magnetically treated irrigation water, particularly for saline water and recycled water, on the yield and water productivity of treated plants.

The technology of magnetic water has widely studied and adopted in field of agriculture in many countries, Magnetic technology considered as one of the most promising technologies that can improvement and treated with different problems in the agricultural sector, such as the decrease in quantities of  irrigation water, in the same time there are global demands for food due  to the expected population increase around the world by 2050 .Where the world’s population will reach about 9 billion people, which will need more food production by about 60 percent of current production to meet the needs of mankind.

Magnetic technology is used in several ways to improve agricultural production like:

  1. Treating seeds and seedlings, leads to acceleration of plant growth activates proteins formation and root development (Rakosy-Tican et al., 2005).
  2. or to treat irrigation water
  3. and saline-affected soils,

which are used to increase seed germination and improve seedling growth and crop productivity, the most widespread use of magnetic technology in agriculture is treatment of irrigation water to increase its efficiency and allow the use of available water sources even low quality water, as well as soil salinity treatment.

Magnetic field changed the characteristics of cell membrane, effected the cell reproduction and caused some changes in cell metabolism.

Magnetic treatment of water improve different water characters, also,  improve the vegetative growth and productivity of plants either quality  or quantity, the reason of this effect can be searched in the presence of paramagnetic properties in chloroplast which can cause an acceleration of seeds metabolism by magnetic treatment

A magnetic field treatments was shown to induce seed germination, shoot development, fresh weight and plant length, fruit yield per plant and average fruit weight (Abobatta 2015).

Static magnetic fields has positive effects on the metabolism and growth of different plants, Roots seem much more susceptible to the magnetic field than shoots (Kato et al., 1989), from other side Electromagnetic fields can alter plasma membrane structures and functions.

In general , treatments with magnetic field the plant metabolism is changed and it is possible to induce some phenotypic and genotypic effects able to stimulate the plant productivity.


Dr. Waleed Abobatta


Croton plant

 Croton plant

Codiaeum variegatum

Family: Euphorbiaceae


                                    Croton has glossy, leathery leaves that are very variable in shape, highly colored and variegated.  The leaves can be ovate or linear and variegated with pink, orange, green, brown, yellow and white.

Croton is an exotic looking plant that is grown in warm greenhouses or conservatory or as a indoor plant.

It is native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia and the western Pacific Ocean islands, and growing in open forests and scrub.


                          It is an evergreen shrub growing to 3 m (9.8 ft) tall and has large, thick, leathery, shiny evergreen leaves, alternately arranged, 5–30 cm long and 0.5–8 cm broad. The inflorescence are long racemes 8–30 cm  long, with male and female flowers on separate inflorescences;   the male flowers are white with five small petals and 20–30 stamens, the female flowers yellowish, with no petals.

The fruit is a capsule around 1 cm diameter, containing three 6 mm seeds. The stems contain milky sap that bleeds from cut stems.


                        In tropical climates, crotons make attractive hedges and potted patio specimens, valued for their striking foliage. They only survive outdoors where temperatures do not normally drop below 10° to 13°C in winter; colder temperatures can cause leaf loss.In colder climates, the plants are grown in greenhouses or as house plants.

The cultivated garden crotons are usually smaller than the wild plant, rarely over 1.8 m tall, and come in a wide diversity of leaf shapes and colours.


                             For a plant with this incredible diversity, it’s amazing there is only species (C. variegatum). 

Crotons are often subdivided by their leaf type: curling, twisted, oak leaf, narrow, broad, oval, etc.

Also, sometimes different plants grouped under the name  Codiaeum variegatum var. pictum (Lodd.) Müll. Arg., though this is not botanically distinct from the species and usually treated as a synonym of it.

For that, there are several hundred of croton cultivars, selected and bred for their foliage. Depending on the cultivar, the leaves may be ovate to linear, entire to deeply lobed or crinkled, and variegated with green, white, purple, orange, yellow, red or pink.

There are different varieties like Dreadlocks, Ann Rutherford, Mona Lisa, and Irene Kingsley.


                            Crotons are easily propagated through stem cutting. Preferable usage  rooting hormone to increase the odds of success.

Crotons sometimes produce “sprouts,” or shoots that are completely different from the parent plant. These can be potted up independently.

Seeds used only in breeding program for scientific purposes,

                       Only cuttings will produce a plant that is identical to the parent.


                          As with many of the Euphorbiaceae, the sap can cause skin eczema in some people. The bark, roots, latex, and leaves are poisonous, containing the toxin called 5-deoxyingenol, also, the latex has caused eczema in some gardeners after repeated exposure.

The plant contains an oil which is violently purgative and is suspected of being a carcinogen. Consumption of the seeds can be fatal to children.

         Chewing the bark and roots may be cause burning of the mouth. 

Dr. Waleed Abobatta

Lucuma Tree

Lucuma Tree
Pouteria lucuma,

Family: Sapotaceae

A fruit tree of the Andes, in Ecuador, the tree is called lugma, from other side,it’s called lucuma in Chile, The native habitat of this tree is the high Andean valleys of Peru, Chile, and Ecuador.

It has been used  by the Incas for at least 2,000 years, p.d., and still is not practically known in the rest of the world.


                  Lucuma is a handsome tree, small to moderately tall, with slightly leathery leaves, it sometimes grows as a central leader tree, but more usually it has multiple leaders.

Lucuma  is a subtropical fruit tree of Andean valleys, especially in Peru, also it’s grown in Ecuador, Colombia, north of Chile and Bolivia.

It is being cultivated  in Costa Rica, Mexico, Hawaii, Australia and New Zealand. Also there is some trials to planting in Florida and California .

Peru is the First producer for the dried pulp market, by  (16,000 metric tonnes of fresh fruit in Peru alone (given 8 tonnes per hectare).


              The tree  grow will across a wide range of soil types, including somewhat calcareous or even slightly saline soils, so long as the soil is fairly well drained. the tree need good drain to avoid root rot diseases.


                         Trees flowering in mid winter to spring. The flowers are white  to yellow, and narrowly tubular.  The male anthers are arranged around the ‘mouth’ of the flower ‘tube’. The female style projects from the bud prior to the flower opening, may be they can then pollinate the female part, if it hasn’t already been done.

There are some  author says lucuma trees are self fertile, and “appear to be insect pollinated”, the fruit mature after  8 or 9 months to go from flower pollinating.

“Meanwhile in the Andes it flowers and fruit year round”


                          lucuma tree almost propagation by seeds, for that there are different varieties, for example in Peru, over 100 improved lineages have been identified, either with heavier fruit production, or improved fruit quality.

In Chile La Molina University start deliberate breeding program to get new species with highly production and better fruit quality, now there are ‘San Antonio’, ‘Merced’, and ‘Vergata’ varieties are known as Chilean cultivars .

In New Zealand there is only one cultivar  ‘La Molina’, which was at one time available from a nursery, it is a Peruvian cultivar, the fruit have soft flesh , with orange flesh.


Dr. Waleed Abobatta

A. R. C.

Reuse waste water and Green cities development

Reuse waste water and Green cities development


                                    In nature, water (as energy) is neither formed nor destroyed but is converted from one form to another .

  • Only about 1% of global water occurs as liquid freshwater. More than 98% of the freshwater occurs as groundwater, while less than 2% is available in streams and lakes, so the liquid freshwater is a finite and limited resource.
  • The increasing scarcity of water in the world along with rapid population increase in urban areas gives rise to concern about appropriate water management practices.

With increasing population and economic growth, treatment and safe disposal of wastewater is essential to preserve public health and reduce intolerable levels of environmental degradation. In addition, adequate wastewater management is also required for preventing contamination of water bodies for the purpose of preserving the sources of clean water. 
Water scarcity and water pollution are crucial issues in today’s world. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity and pollution is wastewater reuse.

Why Reuse of Wastewater is required?

—To reduce the ever increasing gap of Potable Water Supply and Demand in Urban Cities.

—To bring down billing charges of fresh water resulted due to long distance transportation, gradient and high energy costs.

—To mitigate conflicts of water resource allocation between the Domestic and Agricultural /Industry.

—To reduce groundwater extraction and Increase conservation of water resources.

  • Make water and sanitation sector sustainable .

—Using reclaimed water in place of fresh water for existing uses can free up existing water supply system capacity to cater for new water needs.

—This results in savings in the cost of developing new water sources, water transfers, treatment and distribution systems .

—It can also result in significant improvements in downstream river water quality.

Environmental benefits of water reuse

—Water reuse to meet the world’s water needs.

“Water recycling is a critical element for managing our water resources .

—Through water conservation and recycling, we can meet environmental needs and still have sustainable development and a viable economy .

water recycling as “the brightest star” in meeting future water needs in the world.


A valuable plant production from Marginal Lands



Marginal land considered as a died land which need high cost to reclaim regarding many reasons like hard climate.
Unfortunately, there are wide marginal areas in MENA region for different reasons like high salinity, drought, high temperature and meal nutrition.

However, there are certain high-value types of plants that fit it this environment, and Jojoba seedling is on the top of these plants.
Jojoba Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider is a precious, drought resistant shrub that is adapted to the marginal land and dry area, and offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive, very few other species can survive this kind of environment.

For that, Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development, Hot summers resist, desert soil, minimal water, and great salinity tolerance. Lesser possibilities for infection, minimum fertilizers
requirements, and generous financial income, are certainly most encouraging to plant Jojoba in marginal land.


 نباتات مربحة من الأراضى الهامشية


 تعد الأراضى الهامشية أحد انواع الأراضى المهملة والتى يتطلب استصلاحها وتحويلها لأراضى منتجة مجهودات عالية التكاليف, مما دفع لاهمالها لفترات طويلة.

وللاسف هناك الكثير من المساحات التى تدخل ضمن الأراضى الهامشية فى منطقتنا العربية والافريقية والتى كانت تمثل عائقا كبيرا امام عملية التنمية فى هذه المناطق, سواءا لملوحة هذه الأراضى أو فقرها الشديد فى العناصر الغذائية أو ظروفها المناخية القاسية من جفاف وحرارة عالية مما مثل عوائق صعبة لزراعتها وتنميتها وتحويلها لمناطق مأهولة بالسكان.

وفى الأونة الاخيرة انتبه العالم لمدى أهمية الجوجوبا وقدرتها على النمو فى العديد من انواع الأراضى وقدرتها على النجاح فى الأراضى الهامشية وتحويلها لأراضى منتجة بأقل التكاليف الممكنة.

حيث تتحمل الجوجوبا الظروف المناخية الصعبة مثل الملوحة حتى 8 ألاف جزء في المليون, ودرجات الحرارة العالية, وظروف الجفاف وقلة المياه, كما يمكنها النمو بالأراضى الفقيرة فى العناصر الغذائية  أى يمكنها النمو فى ظروف  صعبة سواءا مناخية أو من حيث نوعية وجودة التربة, والتى لا تنمو فيها معظم الأنواع النباتية الأخرى.

وبالتالى فان الجوجوبا تعد النبات المثالى لتنمية ” الاراضى الهامشية ” وتحقيق عائد اقتصادى مجزى منها, ولذلك تستخدم الجوجوبا فى تثبيت الكثبان الرملية, وكذلك لمكافحة التصحركاحزمة خضراء حول المدن والتجمعات الجديدة.

 و شجرة الجوجوبا يتراوح ارتفاعها من (2- 4 متر تقريبا), ولها عدة سيقان رئيسية ومجموع خضرى كثيف,  و وأوراق الجوجوبا صغيرة الحجم (من 2- 3سم طول, و1 – 1.7 سم عرض) وهى جلدية سميكة رمادية اللون, وتحمل متقابلة على الأفرع, و متجهه للأعلى مما يقلل فقدها للماء نتيجة لعدم تعرضها بصورة مباشرة للشمس, وللجوجوبا مجموع جذرى قوى يتعمق لمسافات كبيرة قد تصل الى عشرة اضعاف ارتفاع النمو الخضرى., مما يمكنها من تحمل ظروف الجفاف العالية والظروف البيئية الصعبة.

وترجع الأهمية الاقتصادية للجوجوبا لاحتواء بذورها على 40 الى 50% من وزنها شمع سائل يطلق عليه مجازا زيت الجوجوبا, والذى يعد اكثر الزيوت النباتية شبها بزيت كبد الحوت, و الجوجوبا من المحاصيل متعددة الاستخدام, حيث يستخدم زيتها فى العديد من الصناعات سواء مستحضرات التجميل, او انتاج مواد طبية, ونظرا لارتفاع درجة انصهاره والتى تصل الى (410 درجة مئوية)فيعد من أجود زيوت التشحيم, ويعد الاستخدام الأهم حاليا هو انتاج وقود حيوى من زيوت الجوجوبا.

لذا فان الجوجوبا تعد النبات المناسب لتنمية الاراضى الهامشية.

Jojoba A key to sustainable development in marginal lands

Jojoba A key to sustainable development in marginal lands


Planting jojoba in marginal lands considered a sustainable approach to the environment and its resources.

Marginal lands are particularly defenseless to a range of problems associated with desertification; wide areas of the world’s dry lands can be characterized as marginal.

Jojoba {Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider} considered a crop that consume less water than other crops, hot summers resist and great salinity tolerance, which can grow in many semi-arid regions of the world, would not require the use of chemical pesticides that pollute the environment, also, offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive in this kind of environment.

Jojoba produce seeds have 40–50% of its weight as oil, for that Jojoba represents a valuable renewable energy source which can replace fossil fuels in industries and in domestic appliances, also, jojoba oil used mostly in the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics and as lubricants.

Jojoba has a potential use for rehabilitation as provision of income to the poor communities and Marginal land development. It has been used to combat and avoid desertification in the desert areas.

For all these wonderful features jojoba plants can achieve sustainable development of marginal lands.



                            Marginal land considered as a dead land which needs high cost to reclaim, unfortunately, there are wide marginal areas in MENA region for different reasons like high salinity, drought, high temperature and meal nutrition.

FAO defines marginal land as: Land having limitations which in aggregate are severe for sustained application of a given use.

People living in these areas typically suffer from poverty and are vulnerable to threats related to food security.

Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to the world, the focus should be on generating agrofuel from jojoba or Jatropha as inedible sources.

This situation can be avoided through integrated strategies and interventions, taking into account the natural properties of marginal land environments and the capacities of dryland communities

Sustainable development is required to reduce poverty in these lands, in order to enable marginal land dwellers to maximize their resource management capacities.

Sustainable land management: means the management of land as a resource and factor of production, addressing both its economic and ecological importance. It seeks to establish forms of land use which ensure that the soil, water and vegetation continue to sufficiently support production systems based on use of the land, for present and future generations.

Small farmland and food security make agrofuel derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to the world, the focus should be on generating biodiesel from jojoba or Jatropha as inedible sources. Marginal lands may play an important role in agrofuel production

  • Challenges in Marginal Dry lands :

Drylands are remarkable ecosystems, but limited water availability and its variability impact the capability to grow crops, advance livestock and produce consumer goods.

Dry lands occur on all continents; they represent more than 40% of the global land area and are home to almost a third of the global population, 90% of who live in developing countries (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005).

Marginal dry lands are mainly exposed to a variety of problems associated with desertification, and becomes a constraint when human activities stress dry land ecosystems exterior their loud size limits, resulting in irreversible degradation of land.

This situation can be avoided through integrated strategies and interferences, taking into description the natural properties of dry land environments and the abilities of dry land communities.

In different regions, increases in salinization of soil and water resources have resulted from the continual application of irrigation water, over-extraction of groundwater and incorrect drainage (Safriel et al., 2005).

It is now commonly accepted that single-factor and sector oriented solutions to combating desertification do not work, and can even be counterproductive. Contemporary integrated management schemes take into account the marginal biophysical character of dry lands and their constraints, as well as the wide-spread poverty syndrome of dry land communities.

In order to enable dry land occupants to maximize their resource management capacities, sustainable living options and political permission are required.

  • Jojoba Dreams:

One crop that is regularly cited as ideal for growing on marginal land in developing countries, is the oilseed bush Jojoba, there are plans to grow this crop in different regions like Africa, Asia and South America.

Jojoba offers promise for agriculture in harsh environments where many other crops cannot survive (Yermanos 1979).

“Jojoba supposed to be future arid plant”.

  • Why Jojoba?

Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider or simply Jojoba belongs to the family Simmondsiaceae, is evergreen, perennial woody shrub that produce small seeds, which contains waxy liquid very similar to spermaceti.

Jojoba represents a valuable renewable energy source which can replace fossil fuels in industries and in household appliances.

This desert shrub is inherently suited to marginal lands of semi-arid environments,  jojoba can tolerate salinity and other hazards of arid lands, it’s grows well in light textured soils, drought conditions and  saline water up to 6000 ppm ( Abobatta et al., 2015), requires little water and maintenance, is free from disease.

Jojoba is the only source of liquid wax esters, among the numerous identified plant species in the world, these special esters have unique properties compared to all other natural oils, which are composed of triglycerides.

Jojoba shrubs typically grows to (2 – 4 m) height, with a broad, dense crown, the leaves are opposite, oval in shape, 2–3.5 cm long and 1 –1.7 cm broad, thick, waxy, and gray-green in color, carry a header on the branches, which decreases exposure to sunlight.

           Jojoba has a deep rooting habit, and strong root system may reach a length of more than ten times the vegetative growth height, jojoba produces nuts with 40-50% of its weight as oil.

 Jojoba can commercially be grown in most marginal land in semi-arid developing countries, which have an edge due to the low cost of production of Jojoba.

Jojoba gaining worldwide attention, as a possible plant species for oil production, jojoba oil is unique due to its unusual properties that differ from other oil seeds, the complete absence of glycerin makes it liquid wax and not fat.

For that, jojoba oil and its derivatives find requests and are used in fields of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and lubricants as a replacement of sperm whale oil, the waste products from jojoba oil processing were used to improve soil, as a dry material, the pulp can absorb water up to 10 times its volume.

In recent years, jojoba is becoming gradually known as an industrial crop in different countries, it’s produced in the USA, Latin America, MENA region and many other countries of the world.

The total area covered by this crop throughout the world is around 20,500 hectares.

Jojoba advantage:

  1. Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development, hot summers resist, desert soil, minimal water, and great salinity tolerance, lesser possibilities for infection, minimum fertilizers requirements,
  2. Jojoba has a potential use for rehabilitation as provision of income to the poor communities and Marginal land development.
  3. Jojoba has been used to combat and prevent desertification in the desert areas.
  4. Generous financial income, are certainly most encouraging to plant jojoba in marginal land.
  5. Long life span, over 100 years in some cases.
  6. No annual re-planting required as only the seeds are harvested.


All these features are embodied in one wonderful plant: Jojoba

 One of the several renewable biofuel sources, and yet not widely known, jojoba plant, appears to be promising with scope for cultivation in the relatively hot weather. As such, the key to the future of biodiesel is finding inexpensive feed stocks that can be grown by farmers on marginal agricultural land, and jojoba  is one of many plants that hold a great deal of promise.

  • Agrofuels:

Partly in order to respond to accusations that agrofuels compete with food production, some policy makers have proposed that agrofuel crops should be planted on land that is considered marginal or idle.

There are millions of hectares of such land all over the world, especially in MENA region, which are of no importance for biodiversity or carbon sequestration, and which play no role in food production.

Planting “marginal lands” with agrofuels could be extremely positive, providing income for local communities and replacement fossil fuels in the market.

According to the UK’s Gallagher Review maintains that indirect negative impacts from agrofuels can be avoided by growing them on marginal land.  “Biofuel production must target marginal and idle land and use of wastes and residues.”

Visibly, produce agrofuel from non-edible oils like jojoba and jatropha oils are very economical comparable to edible oils mainly in developing countries.



Sustainable bioenergy has become an important goal for many countries. The use of marginal lands to produce energy crops is one strategy for achieving this goal.

The last decades have seen the emergence and growth of the biofuel sector and its growth into a global industry. Different countries, low- middle-income and rich, have realized ambitious goals and policies to promote significant agrofuel industries.

In industrialized countries, the main driver of agrofuel growth has been the concern to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In contrast, developing countries have seen biofuels as a way of feat a number of goals including better energy security, promotion of exports and rural development.



            Sustainable development is a key factor in the successful enhancement of marginal lands.

For that, Jojoba is considered one of the most practical and scientific solutions for marginal land development.

Obviously, produce agrofuel from non-edible oils like jojoba and jatropha oils are very economical comparable to edible oils mainly in developing countries.

It is claimed that growing jojoba on marginal lands will bring development benefits to different countries,



  1. Abobatta, F. R., El Ghadban, E. A. E. and Mahmud, G. F. (2015) Chemical studies on grown jojoba oils under Egyptian conditions, Glob. J. Agric. Food Safety Sci., Vol.2 (3): pp. 270 – 283.
  2. 1994. Science for the People-Technology for Progress. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Science and Technology. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Regional Office, Bahawalpur. 3
  3. Butt, M. A., M. Akram and M. Abdullah. 1991. Jojoba an economic oilseed plant for desert with special reference to Cholistan. Proc. National Seminar. The People’s Participation in the Management of Resources in Arid Lands. Nov. 11-13, 1990. Bahawalpur, Pakistan. p. 72-78.
  4. Benzioni, A., A. Nerd and D. Mills. 1990. Salinity in growth and development of clones. Jojoba Happenings 18 (5): 2.
  5. El-Sayed, M. S. M., 2012. Applied approach for the use of jojoba oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. M.Sc. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.
  6. Kubitzki, K. and C. Bayer, Flowering plants, Dicotyledons : Malvales, Capparales, and non- betalain Caryophyllales. The Families and genera of vascular plants. 2003, Berlin ; New York: Springer.
  7. Scherr, Sara. J. and Hazell, P. B. R. 1994. Sustainable agricultural development strategies in fragile lands. International Food Policy Research Institute 1200 Seventeenth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036-3006 U.S.A.
  8. Thomson, P. H. 1982. Jojoba Handbook (3rd Ed.). Bonsall Publications, 4339 Holly    Lane Bonsall, California (USA).
  9. Van Wyk, B.-E. and M. Wink, Medicinal plants of the world : an illustrated scientific guide to important medicinal plants and their uses. 1st ed. 2004, Portland, Or. : Timber Press.
  10. Waleed Abobatta, (2016) Simmondsia chinensisشجرة الذهب الاخضر-الجوجوبا- Noor Publishing – Germany.


  1. Ya, Tang, Jia-Sui Xie, and Shu Geng 2010. Marginal Land-based Biomass Energy Production in China
  2. Yermanos, D.M. 1979. Jojoba: a crop whose time has come. California Agriculture. p. 4-11


Role of Nanotechnology in Horticulture production enhancement

Nanotechnology is a newly initial field in recent decades on a commercial scale, in the same time increasing pollution rates in various agricultural products is a serious problem need quickly solving to increase exporting our agriculture products,
Nano materials promise many stimulating changes to enhance different crop production and fruit quality.

We must manage to increase production efficiency of different horticulture crops, increased soil vitality and decreased costs as possible and decreasing the pollution, with using novel sciences such as nanotechnology in products, could be counted as the best solution to this problem.


Also, Nano materials is using as antifungal in many fruits, vegetables and flowers to improvement shelf life, as Nano Silver Particles which have been used as antifungal to increased vase life of different kinds of flowers.
Also, zincoxide nanoparticles using microbial approach, postharvest of banana, carrot, tomato, onion and etc.


Several papers funding that nano-packing material had quite beneficial effects on physicochemical and physiological quality of products compared with normal packing material.
Therefore, the nano-materials may provide an attractive alternative to improve the preservation qualities of fruits, vegetables and other valuable horticultural crops which reduced costs of different horticultural products.


This lecture highlights some recent benefits of the use of nanotechnology for horticultural crops production.


Jojoba Book _ Simmondsia chinensis

Jojoba Trees

Simmondsia chinensis




New Jojoba Books:

Jojoba belongs to family Simmondsiaceae is a woody, evergreen, perennial shrub native to Southern Arizona, Sonora and Baja California. The seeds produce a liquid wax, which is very similar to spermaceti and has wide applications in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.

In addition, different extracts from jojoba plant are widely used in many folk medicinal uses.

this book about planting and production of jojoba trees in different areas in arid Lands, trees resistance for salinity up to 6000 ppm and drought conditions,