waleed abobatta

Introduction to Epigenetics Science

Introduction to Epigenetics Science

What is epigenetics?

The term epigenetic is often used to describe a variety of unexpected patterns of gene regulation.

Chemical modifications of chromosomal DNA and/or structures that change the pattern of gene expression without altering the DNA sequence.

  • Epigenetics: 

Any process that alters gene activity without changing the DNA sequence and leads to modifications that can be transmitted to daughter cells

Or, Gene functions can be altered by more than just change in DNA sequence.

  • Epigenetic trait:

Is a stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA  sequence.

Importance of Epigenetics:

  • Study of evolution

  • Epigenetic drugs to treat various diseases.

  • Cancer treatment: DNA hypomethylation can activate oncogenes and initiate chromosome instability, whereas DNA hypermethylation initiates silencing of tumor suppressor genes.

  • Mental Retardation Disorders

  • Immunity & Related Disorders

  • Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

  • An overall transcriptomic activity of an organism is determined not only by its genetic makeup but also by epigenetic regulations.

Dr. Waleed Abobatta


MiniReview: Simmondsia chinensis Jojoba tree

Jojoba tree
Waleed F. Abobatta
Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt.


This review presents general information about Hohoba commonly as jojoba. It is the sole species of the family Simmondsiaceae. Jojoba plants have currently received exceptional attention, since, its seeds contain a unique liquid wax commonly called jojoba oil, that is very similar to that obtained from Whale sperm.
Jojoba is considered a promising crop for arid and marginal areas; the plant also has probable value in combatting desertification and soil degradation in dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, jojoba considered as a new plant for arid and marginal areas.The plant is grown for its seed which contains a liquid wax with a high melting point. This oil is used in a variety of products including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, lubricants and bio-fuel. Several aspects of the crop agronomy is reviewed including a botanical description, propagation methods from seed and cuttings, This review is intended to afford a reference to scientists and growers in the agronomy and management of jojoba.


Buddha Hands Fruit

Buddha Hands Fruit

Citrus medica var. sarcodactylus

This lemon like citron (Citrus medica var. sarcodactylus) is not usually eaten fresh, (although the rind may be candied and is sometimes used for zest), but it’s fragrant and said to have some medical qualities. It is said that the fragrance of a single fruit can perfume a room for weeks.

The Origin:

                                    The origin of this kind of citron is commonly traced back to the Far East, probably northeastern  India  or China, where most domesticated citrus fruits originate.


                   Buddha’s Hands { Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis } one of citrus kinds, like any other citrus variety, it is a  small tree or shrub  with long, irregular branches covered in thorns, the leaves are large grow up to 15 cm, oblong pale, green, Its white flowers grow in fragrant clusters and tinted purplish from the outside, the fruit contain only the white part of the fruit and sometimes a small amount of acidic pulp, but many varieties  are completely juice-less and some are seedless.

The fruit is segmented into finger-like sections, resembling a human hand, but the different cultivars and variations of this citron variety form a gradient from “open-hand” types with outward-splayed segments to “closed-hand” types, in which the fingers are kept together, also, there are half-fingered fruits, in which the basal side is united and the apical side fingered.


                            Trees can be grown from cuttings taken from branches two to four years old, it is very commonly grafted onto sufficient rootstock.


               As most kind of citrus, the plant is sensitive to frost, as well as intense heat and drought, It grows best in a temperate climate.

Traditionally, the fruit was prized by the Chinese for its resemblance to a hand with the fingers outstretched. The buddha’s-hand citron was a popular plant motif in the art of the Ming dynasty. Besides its association with the Buddha the plant suggested wealth because of its resemblance to an outstretched hand. It remains popular at New Year’s and is said to bestow good fortune.

Dr. Waleed Abobatta


Reuse waste water and Green cities development

Reuse waste water and Green cities development


                                    In nature, water (as energy) is neither formed nor destroyed but is converted from one form to another .

  • Only about 1% of global water occurs as liquid freshwater. More than 98% of the freshwater occurs as groundwater, while less than 2% is available in streams and lakes, so the liquid freshwater is a finite and limited resource.
  • The increasing scarcity of water in the world along with rapid population increase in urban areas gives rise to concern about appropriate water management practices.

With increasing population and economic growth, treatment and safe disposal of wastewater is essential to preserve public health and reduce intolerable levels of environmental degradation. In addition, adequate wastewater management is also required for preventing contamination of water bodies for the purpose of preserving the sources of clean water. 
Water scarcity and water pollution are crucial issues in today’s world. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity and pollution is wastewater reuse.

Why Reuse of Wastewater is required?

—To reduce the ever increasing gap of Potable Water Supply and Demand in Urban Cities.

—To bring down billing charges of fresh water resulted due to long distance transportation, gradient and high energy costs.

—To mitigate conflicts of water resource allocation between the Domestic and Agricultural /Industry.

—To reduce groundwater extraction and Increase conservation of water resources.

  • Make water and sanitation sector sustainable .

—Using reclaimed water in place of fresh water for existing uses can free up existing water supply system capacity to cater for new water needs.

—This results in savings in the cost of developing new water sources, water transfers, treatment and distribution systems .

—It can also result in significant improvements in downstream river water quality.

Environmental benefits of water reuse

—Water reuse to meet the world’s water needs.

“Water recycling is a critical element for managing our water resources .

—Through water conservation and recycling, we can meet environmental needs and still have sustainable development and a viable economy .

water recycling as “the brightest star” in meeting future water needs in the world.


Magnetic Agriculture

Magnetic agriculture used to reduce water or soil salinity  problems, they proposed an auxin-like effect of the Magnetic Field on germinating seeds, also, irrigation with magnetically treated water or/and magnetic seed treatment are friendly environmental techniques.

Therefore, they take an important place in the list of  environmental clean methods and harmless technology.





Green gold “Jojoba” shining in Egyptian desert

Jojoba plants (Simmondsia chinensis) belongs to family Simmondsiaceae which is mostly a woody, evergreen, perennial shrub that produce small seeds, which contains waxy liquid very similar to spermaceti.

Jojoba plants native to the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, Northern Mexico and arid California.

The gender of jojoba plants can only be discerned from their flowers. When planted from seeds, jojoba plants can take up to three years to produce flowers. The female plants produce seed from flowers the male plants pollinate.

For that we use rooted cuttings to produce female trees to improve the ratio of female to male plants (normally 50:50 in seeded fields), eliminating the expense of removing male plants.

The use of cuttings also improved the growth rate of the female plants, which no longer needed to compete with faster growing male plants for nutrients and water.Jojoba Lecture